Builtin Base Methods

While we strive to implement most of the Enso standard library in Enso itself, it is necessary for certain methods, particularly ones involving operations out of reach for the standard language semantics, or primitive system calls, to be implemented in Java.

To facilitate this process, we have created an annotation-based DSL for easier generation of such methods’ boilerplate.

DSL Overview

The Enso Base DSL exposes certain annotations that allow to generate boilerplate transforming standard Truffle nodes into a shape that can easily be exported to the Base library. This DSL facilitates automatic parsing and typechecking of method arguments and wrapping the node in an actual Function object.

@BuiltinMethod Annotation

The @BuiltinMethod annotation is applied to a Truffle Node subclass that should be treated as a builtin method. It takes the following arguments:

  1. type String the name of the type the method will be registered on.
  2. name String the method name.
  3. description String a summary of the method’s behavior, for documentation purposes.

The annotation will generate a RootNode subclass in the same package as the declaring node, with a name basing on the declaring node’s name. The name of the generated node is the name of the original node, with the Node suffix stripped and the MethodGen suffix appended. E.g. AndOperatorNode will generate a AndOperatorMethodGen root node.

Structural Requirements

The DSL places certain structural requirements on the declaring node.

  1. Construction: The node must be constructible using either a paremeterless, static build method or a parameterless constructor. If a suitable build method is defined, it will be preferred over the constructor.
  2. Execution: The node must declare a single, accessible (i.e. at least package-private), non-void method named execute.

Execute Method Semantics

The execute method defined by the declaring node has the following semantics.

  1. Return type. If the return type is Stateful, the method is assumed to modify the monadic state. For any other return type, the method cannot modify the monadic state.
  2. Arguments. The method may take any number of arguments, though at least an argument named self must be present. The arguments have following semantics:
    1. An Object argument may be annotated with @MonadicState. This tells the DSL to substitute it for the current value of monadic state. Note that this value is read-only. In order to modify state, the method must return a Stateful.
    2. Any VirtualFrame argument will be passed the current execution frame.
    3. Any CallerInfo argument will be passed the current CallerInfo and mark the method as requiring the caller info at runtime.
    4. All other arguments are treated as positional arguments to the method. Note that according to the language specification, any method must take an argument named this. Because of a naming conflict with Java, this argument is called _this in the DSL. Please note that it is mandatory to take an argument called _this, even if it is unused.
    5. The positional arguments can be of any typed specified by the runtime type system (see org.enso.interpreter.runtime.Types) or Object. Arguments typed as Thunk mark the argument as suspended in the generated function header.

Generated Node

The DSL generates a single root node per annotated class. This node handles reading the arguments from the execution frame and typechecking them, before delegating to the declaring node.

The generated node also defines a static makeFunction(Language) method, wrapping the node in a runtime function object.